Polymer nanocomposites (PNC) consist of a polymer or copolymer containing nanoparticles or Nano fillers detached in the polymer medium. These may be of dissimilar in shape (e.g., platelets, fibers, spheroids), but at least one dimension must be in the choice of 1–50 nm. These PNC's fit to the category of multi-phase systems (MPS, viz. blends, composites, and foams) that ingest nearly 95% of plastics production. These systems necessitate controlled mixing/compounding, stabilization of the attained dispersion, orientation of the discrete phase, and the compounding strategies for all MPS, counting PNC, are similar. Polymer Nanoscience is the study and request of Nanoscience to polymer-nanoparticle matrices, where nanoparticles are those with at least one dimension of less than 100 nm. The changeover from micro to nano particles drive to change in its physical as well as chemical belongings. Two of the main factors in this are the upsurge in the ratio of the surface area to volume, and the scope of the particle. The upsurge in surface area-to-volume ratio, which upsurge as the particles get smaller, leads to an growing dominance of the performance of atoms on the outward area of particle over that of those inner of the particle. This affects the properties of the particles when they are reacting with other particles. Because of the higher surface area of the nano-particles, the communication with the other atoms within the combination is more and this upsurges the strength, heat resistance, etc. and many influences do change for the mixture. An example of a Nano polymer is silicon nanospheres which show quite dissimilar characteristics; their size is 40–100 nm and they are much solider than silicon, their stiffness being between that of sapphire and diamond.